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Adenosine 5'-diphosphate (ADP) Platelet Aggregation Inducer Kit according to TU 9398-048-05595541-2014

The kit is designed for the investigation of platelet aggregation in human blood plasma using optical aggregometry and in whole blood using impedance aggregometry. The goal is to detect the activation or dysfunction of these cells for the diagnosis of acquired and inherited platelet disorders.

ADP (Adenosine 5'-diphosphate) is utilized in clinical diagnostic laboratories as an inducer in routine platelet aggregation analysis to determine their dysfunction or activation. In platelet disorders, there is a change in the functional activity of platelets, which is reflected differently in their interactions under the influence of various activators. This property of platelets is fundamental to the diagnosis of this group of diseases and syndromes.

Method Principle: Upon adding ADP to platelet-enriched plasma, it stimulates a change in the shape of platelets and their aggregation. Aggregation induced by exogenous ADP is called primary and is reversible. Healthy individuals' platelets subsequently release endogenous ADP from their granules, leading to irreversible aggregation.

Platelet aggregation is determined using optical and impedance aggregometers. Optical devices are based on registering platelet aggregation in platelet-enriched plasma by changes in optical density. Impedance devices register aggregation in whole blood based on changes in electrical conductivity.

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Kit Composition: — ADP in buffer with stabilizers, lyophilized with a concentration of 1 mM (1 ml/vial) — 3 vials. One vial of lyophilized ADP is intended for conducting from 20 to 100 analyses, depending on the concentration used.

Result Interpretation: In the plasma of healthy donors, the aggregational activity with ADP at a final concentration of 2 x 10-5 mol/L is 60-90%. Aggregation is absent under the influence of ADP in cases of:

  • Glanzmann thrombasthenia,
  • Arachidonic acid metabolism disorders,
  • Essential thrombocythemia,
  • Aspirin overdose (more than 3000 mg).

Aggregation is reduced under the influence of ADP in cases of:

  • Deficiency of alpha granules (gray platelet syndrome),
  • Use of any antiplatelet drugs, anesthetics, alcohol.

The second wave of aggregation is absent in cases of:

  • Dense granule deficiency,
  • Disturbance in platelet signaling pathways,
  • Impairment in the "release" reaction (aspirin-like syndrome),
  • Use of aspirin, nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs, calcium channel blockers, with a possible reduction in the first wave of aggregation.

Externally administered high doses of ADP (2 x 10-5 mol/L) lead to the merging of the first and second waves of aggregation. To achieve two-wave aggregation, ADP is usually used at a final concentration of 4 x 10-6 mol/L. Lower concentrations of ADP are used to detect reduced platelet activity.